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方舟子: “反应停”悲喜剧
作者:USMedEdu
发表时间:2009-12-08
更新时间:2009-12-08
浏览:2246次
评论:1篇
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“反应停”悲喜剧

·方舟子·


在攻击现代医学的文章中,“反应停”是最常被提及的一个代表邪恶的名字。

这种在近50年前草率上市、仅仅过了4年就撤回的药物,至今还在让现代医学蒙羞。而事件的经过也常常遭到了有意无意的歪曲,比如,我曾见到有人撰文以“反应停”事件为例攻击美国食品药物管理局(FDA),不知FDA正是这一事件中的英雄。

“反应停”是在1953年由一家德国公司做为抗生素合成的,但发现它并无抗生素活性,却有镇静作用,于是在1957年做为镇静催眠剂上市。厂商吹嘘它没有任何副作用、不会上瘾,胜过了市场上所有安眠药。而且,它对孕妇也十分安全,可用于治疗晨吐、恶心等妊娠反应,是“孕妇的理想选择”(当时的广告语)。它很快风靡欧洲各国和加拿大,据说光是联邦德国一个月就卖出了一吨。但是在进入美国时,却遇到了麻烦。

美国一家小制药公司梅里尔公司获得“反应停”的经销权,于1960年向FDA提出上市销售的申请。当时刚到FDA任职的弗兰西斯·凯尔西负责审批该项申请。她注意到,“反应停”对人有非常好的催眠作用,但是在动物试验中,催眠效果却不明显,这是否意味着人和动物对这种药物有不同的药理反应呢?而有关该药的安全性评估几乎都来自于动物试验,是不是靠不住呢? 凯尔西并注意到,有医学报告说该药有引发神经炎的副作用,有些服用该药的患者会感到手指刺痛。她因此怀疑该药是否对孕妇也有副作用,是否会影响到胎儿的发育?梅里尔公司答复说,他们已研究了该药对怀孕大鼠和孕妇的影响,未发现有问题。

但是凯尔西坚持要有更多的研究数据,这引起了梅里尔公司的不满,对她横加指责和施加压力。 正当双方在扯皮时,澳大利亚产科医生威廉·麦克布里德在英国《柳叶刀》杂志上报告“反应停”能导致婴儿畸形。在麦克布里德接生的产妇中,有许多人产下的婴儿患有一种以前很罕见的畸形症状——海豹肢症,四肢发育不全,短得就像海豹的鳍足。而这些产妇都曾经服用过“反应停”。实际上,这时候在欧洲和加拿大已经发现了8000多名海豹肢症婴儿,麦克布里德第一个把他们和“反应停”联系起来。1961年11月起,“反应停”在世界各国陆续被强制撤回,梅里尔公司也撤回了申请。

经过长时间的法律较量,研发“反应停”的德国公司同意赔偿受害者的损失。 梅里尔公司在申请前的确研究过“反应停”对怀孕大鼠和孕妇的影响,但是人们后来才知道,大鼠和人不一样,体内缺少一种把“反应停”转化成毒性产物的酶,不会引起畸胎。“反应停”的副作用则发生于怀孕初期(怀孕前三个月),即婴儿四肢形成的时期,而梅里尔公司所试验的孕妇都是怀孕后期的。

麦克布里德成了澳大利亚的英雄,顶住制药公司的压力的凯尔西则成了美国的英雄。为表彰她以一人之力避免成千上万的畸形婴儿在美国诞生,肯尼迪总统于1962年8月2日授予她总统勋章。FDA声望大振,趁机提升自己的地位。美国国会在1962年通过法案强化药物管理,授予FDA更多的权力,要求新药在获准上市前必须经过严格的试验,提供药物副作用和中长期毒性的数据,必须对至少两种怀孕动物进行致畸性试验。

就在“反应停”声名狼藉之际,一名以色列医生偶然发现“反应停”对麻风结节性红斑有很好的疗效。经过34年的慎重研究之后,1998年,FDA批准“反应停”做为治疗麻风结节性红斑的药物在美国上市,美国成为第一个将“反应停”重新上市的国家。“反应停”还被发现有可能用于治疗多种癌症。现在“反应停”已卷土重来,90%被用于治疗癌症病人,在美国的销售额每年约两亿美元。活性更强且没有致畸性的“反应停”衍生物也已被批准上市。

“反应停”致畸事件是药物审批制度不完善的产物,由于厂商急功近利,使全世界诞生了大约1.2万名畸形儿。但是这一悲剧也增强了人们对药物毒副作用的警觉,完善了现代药物的审批制度。近50年来类似的悲剧没有再重演。比悲剧更恐怖的是不能痛定思痛、吸取教训,反而自欺欺人、文过饰非,继续制造悲剧。对比中国龙胆泻肝丸事件,令人叹息。


2005.3.31.(中国青年报2005.4.6)

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共有1条评论
1   [DrNewbie 于 2010-11-08 21:58:41 提到] [FROM: 98.]
共有1条评论
1 [DrNewbie 于 2010-11-08 21:32:49 提到][删除][修改] [FROM: 98.119.]


力刀评注:

这是个很有趣的案例,在住院医生面试时时有发生和遇到或类似的场景。这种情况
的应对常常是面试者有意无意地从你反应回答、面部和BODY语言来考察你的反应能
力和个性特点及成熟的素质。表现得好和应答从容合适到位可以让面试者大为开心
或对你留下深刻良好印象,你就得了高分;而相反,应答错误或不当,轻的引起对
方不快或疑虑,严重的,可以说立即被面试者在心里判了死刑--你出局了!

这个CMG提出了个很好得问题,在我所印的下列讨论里,ChiUSMD和Dojo的发言非常
出色,值得大家认真思考和进一步充分讨论,学习提高自己的面试及对这样问题得
脑筋急转弯能力,以及自己的为人处事成熟能力培养。

值得指出的是:那个在麦地喋喋不休到处卖弄她的所谓“英语”并爱好给人改错的
蠢人的发言更充分地反映出其愚蠢和无知,她的所谓良好英语在她的愚蠢脑袋支配
下成了砸她自己脚的石头。此人在麦地已经贩卖了无数的垃圾和错误得东西。我实
在无法忍受这种蠢人无休无止地误导CMG,所以不惜大开杀戒痛砍此ID,得罪了麦地
版规和版主。

说来是坏事,但这也成就了俱乐部的诞生,这里不会再有这种苍蝇和垃圾的泛滥横
行而不受制止。

*****************************************************************************

发信人: kaye ([email protected][email protected]~埋底海豚~热爱游泳), 信区: MedicalCareer
标 题: [合集] 面试碰到的尴尬事
发信站: BBS 未名空间站 (Tue Nov 2 02:42:11 2010, 美东)


☆─────────────────────────────────────☆

ZXCVBNMWUJI (无极) 于 (Sun Oct 31 22:38:21 2010, 美东) 提到:

面试碰到的尴尬事:

我的第一个面试的一个面试官是一个看上去很和蔼的老先生,进去后他一上来就笑眯眯
的问,你是怎么认识Dr.XXX的?Dr.XXX是我到美国后的第一个老板。我说,您认识他?
他微笑地点头,说Dr.XXX跟他一起在XXX做的resident。我于是精神为之一振,把我当初
出国如何联系Dr.XXX到他那儿做POSTDOC给绘声绘色了一遍,末了还加了一句类似“He
is the nicest person I've ever met.”之类的评论。面试官耐心听我说完,然后仍
然笑眯眯地说:“Well, I was not getting along with him very well at that
time.”然后就是blah blah blah blah.我当场差点晕倒。

☆─────────────────────────────────────☆

DrNewbie (NN) 于 (Sun Oct 31 23:33:50 2010, 美东) 提到:

You could have said back, Ohh, he must have changed quite a bit.
Or he only gets along well with suck-ups. I jam him up real good.

【 在 ZXCVBNMWUJI (无极) 的大作中提到: 】

☆─────────────────────────────────────☆

fionaww (加州无鱼) 于 (Mon Nov 1 00:00:52 2010, 美东) 提到:

第一句还好,第二句就不行啦。万一人家说,感情你是suck-up阿,不然人家怎么看上
你,把你从国内招来呢?不更晕倒了?


【 在 DrNewbie (NN) 的大作中提到: 】
: You could have said, Ohh, he must have changed quite a bit.
: Or he only gets along well with suck-ups.

☆─────────────────────────────────────☆

DrNewbie (NN) 于 (Mon Nov 1 00:03:49 2010, 美东) 提到:

hehehehe.

Third one: Am I such a charming person that I get along so well with him? Or Am I personable that we get along so well.

Fourth one: You should be happy with my people skills now right? Since I can get along with this snob.

If you love my answers and you get my sick humor, please join my club:

Pre_resident_english_corner.

☆─────────────────────────────────────☆

DrNewbie (NN) 于 (Mon Nov 1 01:25:54 2010, 美东) 提到:

The rest are for professionals only. No imitation by amateurs.
The 1st is witty. The 2nd is humor.


☆─────────────────────────────────────☆

dojo (麦地里的豆角) 于 (Mon Nov 1 20:34:37 2010, 美东) 提到:

楼上大哥,你是来搞笑的还是来做广告的?你的这些自以为幽默的答案不是too judgemental ("he must"...lol) 就是自我吹捧。

这个情况下,面试官故意不在开始的时候就说合不来,而是在等楼主说了一大堆以后才
说,其实就是想看楼主遇到尴尬时的反应。象楼上大哥这种回答,把球踢回去,反让面
试官尴尬,我以为不好。我的建议是回答"oh, sorry to hear about that" 就行了,
最多再加一句"I don't know why he treats you and me differently",把这话题带
过就得了。Dr.XXX或者任何一个普通人都不可能跟所有人都合得来,这本是正常现象,
何须画蛇添足

☆─────────────────────────────────────☆

ChiUSMD (治病救热) 于 (Mon Nov 1 20:56:20 2010, 美东) 提到:

I agree. I assume you are a cute girl, and probably got a high remark from
him, otherwise he won't say this political incorrect thing. Go back ask your
boss whatever he said is true or not, then Send him a nice followup email
and make up something 拍一下马屁.

if your boss can send him a short email, 100% you are in or prematched.
My personal experience you will be ranked very high by that program. 美国人的尊师是骨子里的

☆─────────────────────────────────────☆

sfkitty (meow) 于 (Mon Nov 1 21:12:16 2010, 美东) 提到:

这真的是个需要脑筋急转弯的问题,我觉得理想的答案是结合NN和豆角的智慧。“sorry to hear that" ,加上适当的表情(让面试官觉得你的确 feel sorry about it, 而不是随口说说),再加上 “well, I guess he must have changed a lot“, 然后以一个beautiful smile to wrap it up。



☆─────────────────────────────────────☆

dojo (麦地里的豆角) 于 (Mon Nov 1 21:28:20 2010, 美东) 提到:

对的,表情要搭上。但这个must就免了,我对NN第一个答案不满意的就是这个must,显
得好象你多知道Dr.XXX的过去似的。你用"I guess"就对了。

说到底,我觉得这个回马枪问题固然尴尬,但老实应对,或者就是尴尬在那儿傻笑没有
答案,也比表现出自大和judgmental要好,这些性格可是要命的。尤其在正式面试问答
的时候,玩幽默是玩火。

☆─────────────────────────────────────☆

kaye ([email protected][email protected]~埋底海豚~热爱游泳) 于 (Mon Nov 1 23:09:01 2010, 美东) 提到:


dojo(豆角)和chiusmd的分析都很有道理,谢谢!
个人认为是这个问题的正解吧。

☆─────────────────────────────────────☆

ChiUSMD (治病救热) 于 (Mon Nov 1 23:45:44 2010, 美东) 提到:

The old people always have some 童心,he tried to say "got you", just be his
way and do something satisfy his joke. Now matter how smart you are, just
pretend "he got you".

"oops" then smile, or slightly 夸张一下,any other words might turn the
table completely opposite.
American would anwer: "you are good" or "you got me".

在中国,就自罚杯酒。
中美情况差不多,就是不能充大拿。
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共有5条评论
---------------------------------------------------------------------
1 [DrNewbie 于 2010-11-02 14:27:31 提到][删除][修改]
============================================================
Does it matter whether he has changed or not? NO! The best way is to switch gears right away with a neutral, courteous comment. 'Sorry to hear that' is NOT nice at all. Either is 'u got me'. You really have no idea what happened between these two. Could be something nasty. Or his reply could be just a joke. Either way, it is best not to get involved. Along this line, there is no reason to be 'SINCERELY' sorry for it. The 'sorry' line can be interpreted in a bad way: 'You are sorry because I am an ass?'. Better say something neutral without offending either side. 'You got it' works only when he was really joking. What if he was serious? It would be even more awkward.

There isnt any good answer for this awkward situation. Only an immature person would give you a hard time like this. If a person reply in a courteous way, he wins votes. My answer shows integrity, honor and wit. It wins respects from others. The best dealing with this situation is a polite short answer and a quick switch to other topics.

The beauty of my reply is that it does NOT offend either party. Of course, the tone and your body language determines how the msg is delivered and how it will be received. It is saying I dont know his past. All I know he is the nicest person. If what you said about him is true that he was hard to get along, he is very nice now.

'"I don't know why he treats you and me differently" could be taken as very offensive. Right? 'It is because I am an ass?'


2-4 are for laughs only. Hope everyone here knows when to chuckle on a joke. For the people who cant figure out when a joke is told. Here are some clues: suck-ups, jam-up, snob.

All you can brag is how other people drooling over your job. How pathetic.

------------------------------------------------------------------
4 [DrNewbie 于 2010-11-02 13:44:06 提到]
Ur foul mouth cost your job already. You just never learn. You will lose
your job again if you dont know when to hold back your filthy mouth.


You can only take pleasure in getting even by your bragging how the wife of
the boss who fired you left him. You are just plain sick.


BECAUSE YOU HAVE WRITTEN ABOUT THESE FACTS ON PUBLIC WEB SITES, YOU HAVE FORFEITED YOUR PRIVACY.

You are nobody compared with your peers.

Even a monkey can get a score of 50 by throwing darts on a board. So you
think you are smart with scores of 70s? You just got lucky. Period.
Nothing to be proud of.

Talk to anyone who got scores of 70s and ask them whether you just got lucky
or it just doesnt matter. Dont use one case to counter me. Lets talk
about trend or stats.

Your numerous scum filled posts have been deleted by BanZhu. You were so
out of line that even BanZhu was ashamed of you and deleted your mean post
about your ex-boss right after you posted it.

There are many precedents of accomplished people turning into monsters in
their senior years When you were biting every bystander on the street, I
suddenly realized its not me, it is you.

Yes, there are plenty of very smart yet generous, decent people here.

They shoot for much higher goal than you. With your lousy 70s score, no
wonder the best advice you gave to them is to take the less satisfying
prematch. Because you could only get lucky once.

So stop misleading people by using you as an example.

To exclude me from getting info on the medi board, you tried to drag
everyone into ur private club. It just shows how childish you are. Only a
sick person would devise such an evil plan. Even your buddies think you
have gone too far and opened ur private club for public viewing.

You are just a plain sick old man.

--------------------------------------------------------------------

4 [snowfox01 于 2010-11-02 17:25:32 提到] [FROM: 134.74.]
Dr.Newbie:Please be nice to this old man。
难道你没看见你把他生命中唯一的支柱----收集各种贴子,然后大言不惭的copy&post 到自己的网页。给打碎了。同时,他在麦地的“一手遮天” 用那二十年前的狗屁经验来误导新人,也让你给揭穿了。我能理解他的恼羞成怒。他也没几天了,就让他乐呵乐呵吧。

他的英语很好。中国人特别是我们河南人一听就懂。 像“welcome u join my club" 和his is a very unique 8-gua I enjoy to read”还有“I'm sure there you will get more benefits=我坚信在这里你将得到更多的好处。”多么容易的“直”译呀
---------------------------------------------------------------------
5 [DrNewbie 于 2010-11-02 23:00:52 提到]

His best English is:

Bless the God. No wonder people call him the GodFather.
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共有3条评论
1 [DrNewbie 于 2010-11-06 04:15:20 提到][删除][修改] [FROM: 98.119.]
This is taken from USMedEdu's blog, NOT from his private club. After USMedEdu had made the nasty comments, people consulted a few people and below are some answers confirming that DrNewbie's response is good. Others are NOT appropriate.

发信人: daisyy (Daisy), 信区: Pre_Resident_Club
标 题: Re: 无极: 住院医生面试碰到的尴尬事( 力刀评注推荐及麦地网友
发信站: BBS 未名空间站 (Fri Nov 5 11:38:39 2010, 美东)

我在英语论坛问了一下这个问题。 这是我得到的回复。看来说‘Oops, you got me.' ‘I'm
sorry to hear that.'都不是很好。

Dojo 曾经建议过加上 I guess 到 he must have changed 可能是比较好的。

BTW, I don't want to see my threads on this one to be appeared in the
MedicalCareer Board. Thanks.

Well, this is a bit tricky because it's not just a language question,
you're also asking how the situation should be interpreted (which is
difficult to do if you weren't present) and how to respond in a
difficult situation (which can be awkward even in your native language).

Option 1) I would think the old gentleman rather strange if this was
what he was doing, but who knows? In any case, I wouldn't reply "oops,
you got me", as you probably don't really want to say to him "I think
you just tried to trap me in an awkward situation", even if that was in
fact what he was indeed trying to do. It also may sound as though you
were just pretending to like the advisor, whereas in fact you are now
acknowledging that he is unlikeable.

Option 2) Possible, but it sounds a bit strange. You're more likely to
say "I'm sorry to hear that" if you hear that someone has died, or some
other unfortunate event has occurred.

Option 3) ‘I guess he must have changed.' --Probably the best of your
suggestions, in my opinion - you are sticking by your original opinion
of the advisor, whilst acknowledging that the old man might have had a
different experience. It is a good, diplomatic response.




发信人: dojo (麦地里的豆角), 信区: Pre_Resident_Club
标 题: Re: 无极: 住院医生面试碰到的尴尬事( 力刀评注推荐及麦地网友讨论
发信站: BBS 未名空间站 (Fri Nov 5 13:11:12 2010, 美东)

这样,我早上发信给我的consultant问了。她以前是某著名医学院招生委员会成员,也
曾面人无数,现在提供收费咨询服务。她的答案应该算权威了。的确 sorry to hear
that 虽然不只是用在死了人的时候,但有点负面,她的这句话应该是最合适的。

> I have another random question. During interviews, sometimes the
> >interviewer came up with a follow-up question that put me in an awkward
> >position, and I'm not exactly sure what's the best way to answer. For
> >example, one interviewer would ask with a smile "How did you meet Dr. X
> >(one of my advisers)? I knew him because we cooperated many years ago."
> >I'm of course happy that there is a connection, so I would describe my
> >encounter with Dr. X in great detail, and say something like Dr. X is
> >the nicest person I've ever met. But then the interviewer would
> >follow-up, still with a smile, and say "actually, I was not getting
> >along with him very well at that time." What shall I say in this awkward
> >situation? Shall I try to sympathize with him and say "sorry to hear
> >that, I don't why he treated you and me differently"? Or shall I
> >reaffirm my position and say "he must have changed a lot"? Or shall I
> >just downplay and say "you got me"?

I think the best way to deal with it is to just say something like "I'm
sorry you had that experience." Nothing more is indicated. But, it's
very odd for an interviewer to put you on the spot like that. Shows poor
interviewing skills on his/her part.

===========================
If you ask you your consultant that you want to reaffirm your position, of course it is not very appropriate. But if you say it in a way that it serves only as a topic switching comment and in a non-confrontational fashion, it is actually a better choice. The 'changed' line is not intended to argue about his boss' character. It is not relevant to his IV, and not worth debating about.

See below from someone else:
"Option 3)
‘I guess he must have changed.' --Probably the best of your
suggestions, in my opinion - you are sticking by your original opinion
of the advisor, whilst acknowledging that the old man might have had a
different experience. It is a good, diplomatic response.".
-----DrNewbie.
===========================
--

※ 来源:·WWW 未名空间站 海外: mitbbs.com 中国: mitbbs.cn·[FROM: 128.231.]


发信人: fionaww (加州无鱼), 信区: Pre_Resident_Club
标 题: Re: 无极: 住院医生面试碰到的尴尬事( 力刀评注推荐及麦地网友讨论
发信站: BBS 未名空间站 (Fri Nov 5 23:46:18 2010, 美东)

hehe, actually I just talked with my attendings today too and got the same comment.

Just simply say:" I am sorry to hear that. I didn't know you had that
experience with him." Because the interviewee already pushed himself to the
corner, don't say more except simply acknowledging the fact.

2 [DrNewbie 于 2010-11-03 23:04:34 提到][删除][修改] [FROM: 98.119.]
REPLY TO THE ATTACHED COMMENT.

"Must" is perfect here. "May" is NOT.

Would anyone use suck-ups, jam-up in a formal interview as in Joke #2? Would this be a clue that it is a joke? Would anyone use snob in Joke #4? A good joke teller does not start with Hey, I am telling you a joke?

The 'Sorry' line could be interpreted in the wrong way. It is Not like you say sorry when some1 is sick.

Your 'I dont know why he treats us differently' is clearly very OFFENSIVE. It insinuated that the interviewer is an ass cause the Boss is the nicest person in the whole world, right? It is so pathetic that your answer is so appreciated by the MadDoc and put on the front page for people to spit at. Have u noticed that Not a single person responded to the MadDoc's comment? Why? So many people hate me to their guts. Why nobody jumped out and LOLed like you? Simple! Cause your answer is offensive.

Read my reply please before you comment. MadDoc initially made the club private. Only under the protests from some righteous people who think he has gone too far, he made it public a few days later.

Because I use 'real world' examples for English writing practice, a private English club is best suited for this purpose. If you didnt know, a couple of thugs on medi routinely harassed me for correcting their English. Btw, your English is superb. Thats why I thought you would want to help us. But you refused. I am truly sorry for this.

Some people get dark humors. Some dont. It is just a matter of personal tastes. Yes, many did think it was funny.

Clearly, you have got the bad influence from MadDoc. You had a very lousy attitude with your LOLs towards my posts. You are smart enough to have got into a medical school. But your lack of manners will hurt your personal and professional life. Doc is a prime example. Hope you dont follow his path.
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2 [dojo 于 2010-11-03 22:31:32 提到][删除] [FROM: 71.163.]
Okay, now you say #2-4 are for laughs only, why didn't you say that in your originial post? You could see that fionaww challenged your #2 answer, but you did not tell her you were kidding. Instead you gave two more answers "for laughs", but did any one actually laugh in that thread, before I responded? Your humor is really sick.

I made it clear that your #1 answer is fine except that you shall not say "must". "Maybe he has changed a lot" is an okay answer, but how could you use "must"?

Your comment on my "sorry to hear that" shows that you don't even understand what "sorry" means here. It is a very common, sympathetic response to any kind of misfortune. If you ever tried to describe something unfortunate in your life to an American, you should have heard this sentence before. The sympathetic American saying this would never ever think that he is sorry because you are an ass. Your thinking is ridiculous.

Finally, your conspiracy theory "To exclude me ... you tried to drag everyone into ur private club" really makes me sick, even though I was never a fan of Lao Dao. Lao Dao's club is PUBLIC, everyone in the world can read it, and I joined it on my own without Lao Dao's any email. YOUR club is PRIVATE, and YOU sent me email twice to try to drag me into ur club.

3 [dojo 于 2010-11-03 22:31:32 提到][删除] [FROM: 71.163.]
Okay, now you say #2-4 are for laughs only, why didn't you say that in your originial post? You could see that fionaww challenged your #2 answer, but you did not tell her you were kidding. Instead you gave two more answers "for laughs", but did any one actually laugh in that thread, before I responded? Your humor is really sick.

I made it clear that your #1 answer is fine except that you shall not say "must". "Maybe he has changed a lot" is an okay answer, but how could you use "must"?

Your comment on my "sorry to hear that" shows that you don't even understand what "sorry" means here. It is a very common, sympathetic response to any kind of misfortune. If you ever tried to describe something unfortunate in your life to an American, you should have heard this sentence before. The sympathetic American saying this would never ever think that he is sorry because you are an ass. Your thinking is ridiculous.

Finally, your conspiracy theory "To exclude me ... you tried to drag everyone into ur private club" really makes me sick, even though I was never a fan of Lao Dao. Lao Dao's club is PUBLIC, everyone in the world can read it, and I joined it on my own without Lao Dao's any email. YOUR club is PRIVATE, and YOU sent me email twice to try to drag me into ur club.
 
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